A pilot licence is required for flying an aeroplane or a helicopter.
To obtain a pilot licence, applicants need to successfully complete the theoretical knowledge instruction and flight training as specified in Finnish aviation regulations or in the EASA Aircrew Regulation 1178/2011. They also have to visit an authorised medical examiner to get a medical certificate, and pass the necessary theoretical knowledge examinations and skill tests. Contact a pilot school to ask more!
There are many types of aviation licences, all of which require different training. Theoretical knowledge instruction and flight training for sport aviation is often provided by flying clubs, while training for professional licences is arranged by professionally operated flying training organisations. The form of training may also vary according to the licence category sought.
A Student Pilot Licence is required to start basic flight training for ultralight and autogyro licences, but it is not necessary for theoretical knowledge instruction. A Student Pilot Licence is applied for jointly by the pilot school and the student. For further information, please contact a pilot school.
For all licences, including sailplane and powered sailplane, the applicant must also obtain a medical certificate before starting the flight training.
The course for a Private Pilot Licence may be taken in a flying club or flying school with an appropriate training permit. The Private Pilot Licence PPL(A) entitles the holder to fly aeroplanes, whereas PPL(H) is for helicopter flying.
A Private Pilot Licence entitles the holder to fly solo and to take on passengers, such as friends, but not against remuneration. Expenses may be shared among the pilot and friends. This means that a Private Pilot Licence may not be used for any form of commercial aviation.
A Commercial Pilot Licence entitles the holder to fly an aircraft for commercial purposes. Accordingly, the holder of a Commercial Pilot Licence working for a commercial aviation company may transport passengers or goods against payment. The holder of a Commercial Pilot Licence may act as pilot-in-command in single-pilot aircraft, which according to the flight manual only require one pilot. In aircraft for which more than one pilot is required in the flight manual or for a certain type of flight operations, the holder of a Commercial Pilot Licence may act as co-pilot.
Commercial pilots typically carry out sight-seeing flights, for example, or aerial work such as cutting tree branches near power lines from a helicopter with a special saw.
The holder of a Commercial Pilot Licence may also act as co-pilot on a commercial airliner. To do this, the pilot needs to have successfully completed the theoretical knowledge section of an airline transport pilot course, hold an instrument rating for multi-engine aeroplanes and have completed the necessary training for multi-crew co-operation. Commercial operators usually provide their pilots with type rating training, which qualifies the pilot to fly a certain type of multi-pilot aircraft as co-pilot.
Applicants may participate in Commercial Pilot Licence courses without any previous aviation training, or as the holder of a sport aviation licence or private pilot licence. If the student already holds a pilot licence of some sort, he/she may be credited for this when studying for the Commercial Pilot Licence. The extent of the credit (if any) is assessed on a case-by-case basis by the flight training organisation providing the training.
An Airline Transport Pilot Licence differs from all other pilot licences in that it cannot be issued solely on the basis of training. In addition, the pilots need to get practical experience of flying multi-pilot aeroplanes and accumulate their flying hours.
In most cases, the Airline Transport Pilot Licence is applied for by the commercial operator in whose service the CPL holder has gained a sufficient number of flying hours to meet the requirements for an ATPL. There is a separate theoretical knowledge instruction programme and skill test for ATPL. The difference between ATPL and CPL is that only the holder of an Airline Transport Pilot Licence can act as pilot-in-command in multi-pilot aircraft used for commercial air transport operations. Thus, the pilot-in-command in a commercial airliner always holds an Airline Transport Pilot Licence.